Health Library

Risk Factors for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD)

A risk factor is something that raises a person's chances of getting a disease or health problem. A person can have TMD with or without the risks below. The more risks a person has, the greater the chances are.

TMD is most common in those aged 20 to 40 years old. It is also more common in women. Other things that raise the risk of TMD are:

Stress-related Habits

Some habits that may raise the risk are:

  • Clenching and unclenching the jaw
  • Biting the lip
  • Biting fingernails
  • Grinding teeth during the day—or at night in sleep
  • Chewing things like gum or hard candy for a long time

Health Problems

The problems may raise the risk are:

  • Teeth or a bite that is not in line
  • Jaw or face deformities
  • Joint and pain problems like:
  • Past jaw or face injuries
  • Psychological problems, such as stress

References

Temporomandibular disorders. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons website. Available at: https://www.aaoms.org/docs/practice%5Fresources/clinical%5Fresources/tmd%5Fdisorders.pdf. Accessed May 13, 2022.

Temporomandibular disorders. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/temporomandibular-disorders. Accessed May 13, 2022.

Temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) pain. ENThealth—American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery website. Available at: http://www.entnet.org/content/tmj. Accessed May 13, 2022.

TMJ. Mouth Healthy—American Dental Association website. Available at: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/t/tmj. Accessed May 13, 2022.

TMJ (temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders). National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Available at: https://www.nidcr.nih.gov/health-info/tmd. Accessed May 13, 2022.