Health Library

Glutamine

Supplement Forms/Alternate Names

  • L-Glutamine

Introduction

Glutamine is a compound found in the body. It is needed for immune, digestive, and muscle function. Glutamine has been used for nutritional support. It has also been used to help the body fight infection. It can be taken as a pill or powder. It can also be injected into the bloodstream by a healthcare provider.

Dosages

3 to 30 grams daily

What Research Shows

Likely Effective

  • Acute pancreatitis —likely to reduce the risk of death and infections A1, A2
  • Gastrointestinal tumor—likely to improve immune function, lower the risk of infection, and shorten time in the hospital E1
  • Liver transplantation—likely to improve outcomes in people having a liver transplant H1, H2

May Be Effective

Unlikely to Be Effective

  • Cancer Treatment Support —unlikely to improve intestinal swelling or diarrhea after radiation, but may improve mouth sores and lean body mass B1, B2
  • Preterm infants—unlikely to prevent disease or death in preterm infants J1

Not Enough Data to Assess

  • Critical illness C1-C5
  • Crohn Disease D1
  • Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation F1
  • Major burns I1
  • Severe gastrointestinal disease in infants K1

Editorial process and description of evidence categories can be found at EBSCO NAT Editorial Process.

Editorial process and description of evidence categories can be found at EBSCO NAT Editorial Process.

Safety Notes

It is likely safe for most adults to take glutamine in small doses for a short time. Not enough studies have been done to say whether it is safe to use for a long period. It is also not known whether it is safe to take by women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.

Interactions

Talk to your doctor about any supplements or therapy you would like to use. Some can interfere with treatment or make conditions worse.

References

REFA
Acute Pancreatitis

REFA1
Asrani V, Chang WK, et al. Glutamine supplementation in acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pancreatology. 2013;13(5):468-474.

REFA2
Jafari T, Feizi A, et al. Parenteral immunonutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nutr. 2015 Feb;34(1):35-43.

REFA3
Yong L, Lu QP, et al. Efficacy of Glutamine-Enriched Nutrition Support for Patients With Severe Acute Pancreatitis: A Meta-Analysis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2016 Jan;40(1):83-94.

REFA4
Castro-Gutiérrez V, Rada G. IS there a role for glutamine supplementation in the management of acute pancreatitis? Medwave. 2016;16(3):e6512.

REFB
Cancer Treatment Support

REFB1
Worthington HV, Clarkson JE, et al. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Apr 13;(4):CD000978.

REFB2
Sun J, Wang H, et al. Glutamine for chemotherapy induced diarrhea: a meta-analysis. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2012;21(3):380-385.

REFB3
Leggett S, Koczwara B, et al. The impact of complementary and alternative medicines on cancer symptoms, treatment side effects, quality of life, and survival in women with breast cancer--a systematic review. Nutr Cancer. 2015;67(3):373-391.

REFB4
Papanikolopoulou A, Syrigos KN, et al. The role of glutamine supplementation in thoracic and upper aerodigestive malignancies. Nutr Cancer. 2015;67(2):231-237.

REFB5
Ward EJ, Henry LM, et al. Nutritional support in children and young people with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Aug 24;(8):CD003298.

REFB6
Brami C, Bao T, et al. Natural products and complementary therapies for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: A systematic review. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016 Feb;98:325-334.

REFB7
Sayles C, Hickerson SC, et al. Oral Glutamine in Preventing Treatment-Related Mucositis in Adult Patients With Cancer: A Systematic Review. Nutr Clin Pract. 2016 Apr;31(2):171-179.

REFB8
Leung HW, Chan AL. Glutamine in Alleviation of Radiation-Induced Severe Oral Mucositis: A Meta-Analysis. Nutr Cancer. 2016;68(5):734-742.

REFB9
Cao DD, Xu HL, et al. Therapeutic role of glutamine in management of radiation enteritis: a meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials. Oncotarget. 2017;8(18):30595-30605.

REFB10
Mochamat, Cuhls H, et al. A systematic review on the role of vitamins, minerals, proteins, and other supplements for the treatment of cachexia in cancer: a European Palliative Care Research Centre cachexia project. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017 Feb;8(1):25-39.

REFB11
Lawrie TA, Green JT, et al. Interventions to reduce acute and late adverse gastrointestinal effects of pelvic radiotherapy for primary pelvic cancers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jan 23;1:CD012529.

REFC
Critical Illness

REFC1
Tao KM, Li XQ, et al. Glutamine supplementation for critically ill adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Sep 9;(9):CD010050.

REFC2
Oldani M, Sandini M, et al. Glutamine Supplementation in Intensive Care Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Aug;94(31):e1319.

REFC3
van Zanten AR, Dhaliwal R, et al. Enteral glutamine supplementation in critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care. 2015 Aug 18;19:294.

REFC4
Mottaghi A, Yeganeh MZ, et al. Efficacy of glutamine-enriched enteral feeding formulae in critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(3):504-512.

REFC5
Stehle P, Ellger B, et al. Glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition improves the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients: A systematic evaluation of randomised controlled trials. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2017 Feb;17:75-85.

REFD
Crohn Disease

REFD1
Akobeng AK, Elawad M, et al. Glutamine for induction of remission in Chron’s disease; Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;2:CD007348.

REFE
Gastroinestinal Tumor

REFE1
Kang K, Shu XL, et al. Effect of glutamine enriched nutrition support on surgical patients with gastrointestinal tumor: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Chin Med J (Engl). 2015 Jan 20;128(2):245-251.

REFF
Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

REFF1
Crowther M, Avenell A, et al. Systematic review and meta-analyses of studies of glutamine supplementation in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2009 Oct;44(7):413-425.

REFG
Irritable Bowel Syndrome

REFG1
Zhou Q, Verne ML, et al. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of dietary glutamine supplements for post infectious irritable bowel syndrome. Gut. 2019;68(6):996-1002.

REFH
Liver Transplantation

REFH1
Langer G, Großmann K, et al. Nutritional interventions for liver-transplanted patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Aug 15;(8):CD007605.

REFH2
Lei Q, Wang X, et al. Peri-operative immunonutrition in patients undergoing liver transplantation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2015;24(4):583-90.

REFI
Major Burns

REFI1
Tan HB, Danilla S, et al. Immunotherapy as an adjuvant therapy for burns. Tan HB, Danilla S, et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(12):CD007174.

REFJ
Preterm Infants

REFJ1
Moe-Byrne T, Brown JV, et al. Glutamine supplementation to prevent morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Apr 18;4:CD001457.

REFK
Severe Gastrointestinal Disease in Infants

REFK1
Brown JV, Moe-Byrne T, et al. Glutamine supplementation for young infants with severe gastrointestinal disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Dec 15;(12):CD005947.

REFL
Sickle Cell Disease

REFL1
Niihara Y, Miller ST, et al. A Phase 3 Trial of l-Glutamine in Sickle Cell Disease. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(3):226-235.

  • EBSCO NAT Review Board
  • 202206